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HEAT TREATING PROCESSES
purpose for this treatment is to remove stresses or soften the material
for improved machinability or formability, or alter the physical or
mechanical properties, or produce a defined structure, or produce a
solid-solution for subsequent age-hardening or precipitation-hardening.
Tempering usually follows a quenching operation. This treatment is generally considered effective in relieving stresses induced by quenching in addition to lowering hardness to within a specified range, or meeting certain mechanical property requirements.
Stress Relieving is generally applied to metallic materials that have
been cold-worked, machined, flame-cut, or weld-fabricated to reduce
residual stresses for dimensional stability or reduced risk of premature
Normalizing is generally applied to enhance the uniformity of the material microstructure by refining the grain size. This treatment will in some instances improve machinability and machine finish. This treatment is sometimes used as precursor to subsequent surface hardening to improve response to hardening, or to provide a desirable base substrate hardness.
via water-quench, oil-quench, forced- or still-air quench, or aging
results in improved mechanical properties, hardness, and toughness of
the alloy material.
via water-quench, oil-quench, forced- or still-air quench results in
improved mechanical properties, hardness, and toughness of the alloy