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1850 Chapman Street  |  Pittsburgh, PA 15215-2791  |  (412) 781-8053  |  Fax (412) 781-8185  |  Email: pmpheat@aol.com

Experienced Heat Treaters for Over 60 Years

HEAT TREATING PROCESSES

Annealing
ANNEALING (300 - 2250°F)

   The purpose for this treatment is to remove stresses or soften the material for improved machinability or formability, or alter the physical or mechanical properties, or produce a defined structure, or produce a solid-solution for subsequent age-hardening or precipitation-hardening.
Process Anneal: (500 - 1400°F)
Subcritical Anneal: (500 - 1400°F)
Intercritical Anneal: (1335 - 1600°F)
Intermediate Anneal: (500 - 1400°F)
Recovery Anneal: (300 - 1000°F)
Recrystallization Anneal: (330 - 1450°F)
Isothermal Anneal: (1300 - 1650°F)
Spheroidize Anneal: (1200 - 1400°F)
Full Anneal: (650 - 1650°F)
Solution Anneal: (900 - 2250°F)

Tempering
TEMPERING (350 - 1250°F)

  Tempering usually follows a quenching operation. This treatment is generally considered effective in relieving stresses induced by quenching in addition to lowering hardness to within a specified range, or meeting certain mechanical property requirements.

Stress Relieving
STRESS RELIEVING (300 - 1400°F)

  Thermal Stress Relieving is generally applied to metallic materials that have been cold-worked, machined, flame-cut, or weld-fabricated to reduce residual stresses for dimensional stability or reduced risk of premature service failure.
ASME Section I: (900 - 1300°F)
ASME Section VIII: (900 - 1300°F)
AWS D1.1: (900 - 1200°F)
Westinghouse 83030QA: (1175°F ± 25°F)
General Electric P8A-AG1, P10G-AL-0003 & -0004: (1125 - 1275°F, 1125 - 1200°F, and 1250 - 1300°F)
Standard Stress Relieve: (1100 - 1200°F)
Low Temperature Stress Relieve: (325 - 775°F)

Normalizing
NORMALIZING (1600 - 1800°F)

  Normalizing is generally applied to enhance the uniformity of the material microstructure by refining the grain size. This treatment will in some instances improve machinability and machine finish. This treatment is sometimes used as precursor to subsequent surface hardening to improve response to hardening, or to provide a desirable base substrate hardness.

Hardening
HARDENING (up to 2250°F)

  Hardening via water-quench, oil-quench, forced- or still-air quench, or aging results in improved mechanical properties, hardness, and toughness of the alloy material.
Water Quench: (Up to 2250°F) & Tempering: (350 - 1200°F)
Forced-Air Quench: (Up to 2250°F) & Tempering: (350 - 1200°F)
Still-Air Quench: (Up to 2250°F) & Tempering: (350 - 1200°F)
Age Hardening: (300 - 1400°F)

Quenching
QUENCHING (Up to 2250°F)

  Quenching via water-quench, oil-quench, forced- or still-air quench results in improved mechanical properties, hardness, and toughness of the alloy material.
Water Quench: (Up to 2250°F)
Oil Quench: (Up to 2250°F)
Forced-Air Quench: (Up to 2250°F)
Still-Air Quench: (Up to 2250°F)
Selective Quench: (Up to 2250°F)
Time-Controlled Quench: (Up to 2250°F)

annealing
tempering
stress relieving
hardening
normalizing

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Pittsburgh Metal Processing Co., Inc.

1850 Chapman Street  |  PO Box 7824  |  Pittsburgh, PA 15215-2791
In PA: (412) 781-8053
 |  Outside PA (800) 323-7331  |  Fax (412) 781-8185
Email: pmpheat@aol.com

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